ERA

Behavioural Medicine & Health Psychology

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  1. Moderators of implicit explicit concordance JSEP_accepted.pdf [Download]

    Title: Moderators of implicit explicit concordance JSEP_accepted.pdf
    Creator: tanyab@ualberta.ca
    Subjects: exercise, implicit explicit concordance
  2. A mixed methods evaluation of televised health promotion advertisements targeted at older adults [Download]

    Title: A mixed methods evaluation of televised health promotion advertisements targeted at older adults
    Creator: Berry, T. R.
    Description: Abstract: The purpose of this research was to evaluate television advertisements targeted at 55-70-year olds that promoted physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption. Awareness of the campaign, perceived credibility of the source, intentions to visit a promoted website, and intentions to perform the healthy behaviors were evaluated using mixed methods research. Results from a population level survey (n = 1600) showed low unprompted and prompted awareness of the campaign and no differences in intentions or behaviors among those who were aware of the campaign. Unprompted recall resulted in a very wide range of responses including the citation of many commercial advertisers. Qualitative themes that emerged from the focus groups included neutral, positive, and negative comments about the advertisements, source credibility, website considerations specific to seniors, and suggestions about appropriate advertising for older adults. This research showed that the increased attention paid to the advertisements was due in a large part to negative reactions to the character used in the advertisements. Another important finding was the government was not considered to be a credible source of health information. Finally, health promoters should be cautious about websites as the primary source of information, particularly for older adults.
    Subjects: Survey, Focus groups, Television advertisements, Older adults
  3. Ease of Imagination, Message Framing and Physical Activity Messages [Download]

    Title: Ease of Imagination, Message Framing and Physical Activity Messages
    Creator: Berry, T. R.
    Description: Abstract: Objectives. The purpose of this research was to replicate a study that examined how message framing and ease of imagination interact to influence attitudes towards the prevention of heart disease through physical activity and a healthy diet. Changes were made such that only physical activity behaviour was profiled and assessed as a moderating variable. It was hypothesized that gain-framed messages would positively influence attitudes with hard to imagine symptoms, that loss-framed messages would positively influence attitudes with easy to imagine symptoms and exercise frequency would moderate the findings. Design. This study employed a 2 ( easy or hard to imagine symptoms) by 2 (gain- or loss-framed) Solomon square design whereby participants, half of whom completed a pre-test, were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: easy to imagine/gain-framed, hard to imagine/gain-framed, easy to imagine/loss-framed, or hard to imagine/loss-framed. Methods. Participants included adults over the age of 55 years (N = 57) and undergraduate students (18-22 years; N = 118). They were described either hard to imagine or easy to imagine symptoms of heart disease and diabetes and asked to imagine them. Participants then read either a gain- or loss-framed physical activity message followed by post-test questionnaires that assessed attitudes, exercise frequency, and demographics. Results. Regression analyses showed no significant framing effects but significant effects for ease of imagination and exercise frequency as a moderating variable. Conclusions. This study failed to replicate the original research findings but showed that participants who exercised the least and were in the hard to imagine condition had the worst attitudes towards physical activity.
    Subjects: Health-risk, Integration, Attitudes, Mental-imagery, Behaviors, Prevention, Framed messages, Model
  4. Do nonexercisers also share the positive exerciser stereotype? An elicitation and comparison of beliefs about exercisers [Download]

    Title: Do nonexercisers also share the positive exerciser stereotype? An elicitation and comparison of beliefs about exercisers
    Creator: Rodgers, W. M.
    Description: The purpose of this research was to examine whether exercisers and nonexercisers are rated similarly on a variety of characteristics by a sample of randomly selected regular exercisers, nonexercisers who intend to exercise, and nonexercisers with no intention to exercise. Previous research by Martin Ginis et al. (2003) has demonstrated an exerciser stereotype that advantages exercisers. It is unknown, however, the extent to which an exerciser stereotype is shared by nonexercisers, particularly nonintenders. Following an item-generation procedure, a sample of 470 (n = 218 men; n = 252 women) people selected using random digit dialing responded to a questionnaire assessing the extent to which they agreed that exercisers and nonexercisers possessed 24 characteristics, such as \"happy,\" \"fit,\" \"fat,\" and \"lazy.\" The results strongly support a positive exerciser bias, with exercisers rated more favorably on 22 of the 24 items. The degree of bias was equivalent in all groups of respondents. Examination of the demographic characteristics revealed no differences among the three groups on age, work status, or child-care responsibilities, suggesting that there is a pervasive positive exerciser bias.
    Subjects: Activity levels, Beliefs, Physical activity
    Date Created: 2009
  5. SARS Wars: An Examination of the Quantity and Construction of Health Information in the News Media [Download]

    Title: SARS Wars: An Examination of the Quantity and Construction of Health Information in the News Media
    Creator: Berry, T. R.
    Description: Abstract: The media have the power to sway public perception of health issues by choosing what to publish and the context in which to present information. The media may influence an individual's tendency to overestimate the risk of some health issues while underestimating the risk of others, ultimately influencing health choices. Although some research has been conducted to examine the number of articles on selected health topics, little research has examined how the messages are constructed. The purpose of this article is to describe an examination of the construction of news reports on health topics using aspects of the social amplification of risk model and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion for theoretical direction. One hundred news media reports (print, radio, television, and Internet) were analyzed in terms of message repetition, context, source, and grammar. Results showed that health topics were more often discussed in terms of risk, by credible sources using strong language. This content analysis provides an empirical starting point for future research into how such health news may influence consumer's perceptions of health topics.
    Subjects: Risk, Persuasion
    Date Created: 2007
  6. A School-Based Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Physical Activity among Iranian High School Girls [Download]

    Title: A School-Based Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Physical Activity among Iranian High School Girls
    Creator: Taymoori, P.
    Description: Background: Physical activity (PA) rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than adolescent boys. Due to cultural barriers, this problem might be exacerbated in female Iranian adolescents. However, little intervention research has been conducted to try to increase PA participation rates with this population. Because PA interventions in schools have the potential to reach many children and adolescents, this study reports on PA intervention research conducted in all-female Iranian high schools. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of two six-month tailored interventions on potential determinants of PA and PA behavior. Students (N = 161) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: an intervention based on Pender's Health Promotion model (HP), an intervention based on an integration of the health promotion model and selected constructs from the Transtheoretical model (THP), and a control group (CON). Measures were administered prior to the intervention, at post-intervention and at a six-month follow-up. Results: Repeated measure ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between group and time for perceived benefits, self efficacy, interpersonal norms, social support, behavioral processes, and PA behavior, indicating that both intervention groups significantly improved across the 24-week intervention, whereas the control group did not. Participants in the THP group showed greater use of counter conditioning and stimulus control at post-intervention and at follow-up. While there were no significant differences in PA between the HP and CON groups at follow-up, a significant difference was still found between the THP and the CON group. Conclusion: This study provides the first evidence of the effectiveness of a PA intervention based on Pender's HP model combined with selected aspects of the TTM on potential determinants to increase PA among Iranian high school girls.
    Subjects: Transtheoretical model, Students, Adolescent girls, Activity intervention, Environment, Program, Youth, Exercise, Children, Behavior-change
    Date Created: 2008
  7. Improving children’s nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities [Download]

    Title: Improving children’s nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities
    Creator: Olstad, D. L.
    Description: Background: Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151) with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh’s model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results: One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11%) of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational) context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions: If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY have the potential to make a significant and sustained contribution to improving the recreational facility food environment, however one year following their release, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY remained low. A mandated policy approach could offer an efficacious, cost-effective means of improving the food environment within recreational facilities.
    Subjects: Food environment, Recreational facilities, Nutrition guidelines, Childhood obesity prevention, Childhood obesity, Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth
    Date Created: 2011
  8. The processes of change and physical activity: Three-step validation in a sample of adolescents [Download]

    Title: The processes of change and physical activity: Three-step validation in a sample of adolescents
    Creator: Rhodes, R.
    Subjects: Psychology, Adolescents, Physical activity
    Date Created: 2003
  9. The effects of exercise advertising on exercise self-efficacy and decisional balance [Download]

    Title: The effects of exercise advertising on exercise self-efficacy and decisional balance
    Creator: Berry, T. R.
    Subjects: Advertising, Self-efficacy, Exercise, Health behaviour
    Date Created: 2004
  10. Communicating diabetes best practices to clients: a preliminary investigation of educator perspectives [Download]

    Title: Communicating diabetes best practices to clients: a preliminary investigation of educator perspectives
    Creator: Berry, T. R.
    Description: Purpose: The majority of people with type 2 diabetes do not meet dietary and physical activity recommendations. It is not well understood how diabetes educators translate diet and physical guidelines for their clients and if diabetes educators have sufficient resources to promote healthy eating and physical activity. This research addressed these questions through exploratory qualitative interviews. METHOD: A total of 13 diabetes educators who work in Alberta, Canada, were interviewed. RESULTS: The reasons for lack of client uptake of lifestyle recommendations were complex and interwoven. The strongest theme to emerge was the clients' prior knowledge and skills affecting their ability to uptake knowledge. However, educators recognized that clients are affected by social, environmental, cultural, and personal factors. CONCLUSIONS: Health system and societal issues cause a cascade effect resulting in difficulties for both educators and clients. To achieve appropriate treatment of type 2 diabetes, changes need to occur at a health systems level.
    Subjects: Diabetes education, Patient education, Professional-patient relations, Health educators
    Date Created: 2012