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  1. Acoustic characteristics of obstruents in Huehuetla Tepehua [Download]

    Title: Acoustic characteristics of obstruents in Huehuetla Tepehua
    Creator: Rebekka Puderbaugh
    Description: The Totonacan languages of Mexico are known to make extensive use of glottal stop and laryngealization, but little is known about the phonetic realizations of these contrasts. As part of a larger project investigating laryngealization in Totonacan, this paper presents a description of some acoustic properties of pulmonic and glottalic (or laryngealized) stops and affricates in Huehuetla Tepehua (HT), a Totonacan language spoken in Hidalgo, Mexico. The sound inventory of HT includes a laryngealization contrast in stops at three places of articulation: /p t k p’ t’ k’/, and in affricates at two places of articulation:/ts tʃ ts’ tʃ’/. Closure duration and voice onset time (VOT) were measured for both stops and affricates, as well as relative burst intensity and spectral moments of bursts. Duration, relative intensity, and spectral moments of frication were also measured in affricates. Results show that closure durations are slightly shorter in laryngealized segments than in pulmonic segments across both stops and affricates in all places of articulation, although there is still substantial overlap between them. VOT and closure durations vary across places of articulation in the crosslinguistically expected way, with labial segments /p p’/ having shortest VOT and longest closure, velar segments /k k’/ having longest VOT and shortest closure, and alveolar segments /t t’/ falling in between. However, there is a great deal of overlap between durations for all stops across place, manner, and airstream/laryngealization. Affricates are longer than any other segments analyzed here, with /ts ts’/ tending to have slightly longer frication than /tʃ, tʃ’/, but slightly shorter closures. Contrary to many descriptions of glottalic (i.e. ejective) sounds, the bursts of HT laryngealized stops are far weaker than pulmonic stops, sometimes even nonexistent, making a comparison of bursts between pulmonic and laryngealized stops unlikely to be fruitful, if not impossible to complete.
    Subjects: acoustics, phonetics, Tepehua, obstruent, Totonac, glottalic
    Date Created: 2016
  2. Massive Auditory Lexical Decision: Going Big in the Auditory Domain [Download]

    Title: Massive Auditory Lexical Decision: Going Big in the Auditory Domain
    Creator: Benjamin V. Tucker
    Description: Massive Auditory Lexical Decision: Going Big in the Auditory Domain
    Subjects: Phonetics, Psycholinguistics
    Date Created: 2016/10/20
  3. Patterns of usage for English SIT, STAND, and LIE: A cognitively-inspired exploration in corpus linguistics [Download]

    Title: Patterns of usage for English SIT, STAND, and LIE: A cognitively-inspired exploration in corpus linguistics
    Creator: Newman, John
    Description: Posture verbs with the meanings ‘‘sit’’, ‘‘stand’’, and ‘‘lie’’ are of considerable interest within cognitive linguistics on account of the richness of the polysemy and grammaticalizations that they enter into across languages. We explore the usage of English SIT, STAND, and LIE in over a dozen electronic corpora, relying primarily on the British National Corpus, a 100- million word database of written and spoken language. The investigation reveals some interesting patterns of usage with these verbs which are reminiscent of the polysemy and grammaticalization facts associated with like items in other languages. Unlike some of their cross-linguistic correlates, the English cardinal posture verbs have not grammaticalized. Nevertheless, they are showing functional symptoms typically associated with the posture cohort in terms of frequency, collocational fixedness, tense/aspect-marking, and choice of participants, especially subject. Moreover, the actual constructional behavior of English SIT, STAND, and LIE gleaned from the corpora can be used to corroborate introspective and experimental evidence into their meaning and function in the language and suggest how these items may further develop in generations to come.
    Subjects: Auxiliation, Corpus linguistics, Collocation, Posture verbs, Grammaticalization, Word association
    Date Created: 2004
  4. The Wenzhou Spoken Corpus [Download]

    Title: The Wenzhou Spoken Corpus
    Creator: Newman, John
    Description: The creation of the Wenzhou Spoken Corpus, an online searchable corpus of a modern Chinese dialect, presents a number of challenges that are of interest to the corpus linguistic community. We review issues involved with collection of spoken data, its transcription and markup, as well as the functionality of the search tools. The transcription makes use of Chinese characters as well as IPA symbols for Wenzhou colloquial forms not conventionally represented by characters. XML was adopted as the standard for the basic format of files, with file searches expressed in XPath form. The search tools provide the usual options of restricting searches by age, gender, etc., and yield concordances and tables of collocates. Though the collection of data for the corpus was ‘opportunistic’ in some ways, and so not ideally balanced or representative, it is nevertheless proving to be a valuable tool for corpus-based research on Wenzhou.
    Subjects: Wu language, Dialectology, Corpora (linguistics)
    Date Created: 2007
  5. Bilingual children with specific language impairment: Theoretical and applied issues [Download]

    Title: Bilingual children with specific language impairment: Theoretical and applied issues
    Creator: Paradis, J.
    Description: Bilingualism is often considered an inappropriate developmental choice for children with specific language impairment (SLI) because, according to a widespread belief, these children’s limited capacity for language would be overtaxed by learning two linguistic systems. However, there has not been adequate empirical investigation of SLI in bilingual children to support, or refute, this belief and the professional practices that are based on it. On the theoretical side, two opposing perspectives concerning the nature of the deficit in SLI make different predictions for the outcome of children with SLI learning two languages, and one set of predictions is consistentwith the popular belief stated above. This article is aimed at addressing both the applied concerns and the theoretical debate with evidence from two studies examining the morphological acquisition of French–English bilingual children with SLI as compared to French and English monolinguals with SLI.
    Subjects: Bilingualism, Prediction, Comparative analysis, Language research, Language impairments, Beliefs, Child language, French, Second language learning, Language acquisition, Morphology, Monolingualism
    Date Created: 2007
  6. Crosslinguistic transfer in the acquisition of compound words in Persian-English bilinguals [Download]

    Title: Crosslinguistic transfer in the acquisition of compound words in Persian-English bilinguals
    Creator: Foroodi-Nejad, F.
    Description: Crosslinguistic transfer in bilingual language acquisition has been widely reported in various linguistic domains (e.g., D¨opke, 1998; Nicoladis, 1999; Paradis, 2001). In this study we examined structural overlap (D¨opke, 2000; M¨uller and Hulk, 2001) and dominance (Yip and Matthews, 2000) as explanatory factors for crosslinguistic transfer in Persian–English bilingual children’s production of novel compound words. Nineteen Persian monolinguals, sixteen Persian–English bilinguals, and seventeen English monolinguals participated in a novel compound production task. Our results showed crosslinguistic influence of Persian on English and of English on Persian. Bilingual children produced more right-headed compounds in Persian, compared with Persian monolinguals, and in their English task, they produced more left-headed compounds than English monolinguals. Furthermore, Persian-dominant bilinguals tended more towards left-headed compounds in Persian than the English-dominant group. These findings point to both structural overlap and language dominance as factors underlying crosslinguistic transfer.
    Subjects: English, Bilingualism, Transfer of training, Language acquisition, Language dominance, Indo-European languages
    Date Created: 2009
  7. Repair in membership categorization in French [Download]

    Title: Repair in membership categorization in French
    Creator: Maheux-Pelletier, G
    Description: Using conversation analysis as methodology, this article provides a link between the local organization of talk and larger societal issues by investigating specific conversational sequences in which French speakers from different speech communities interact. It is argued that in addition to dealing with problems of speaking, hearing, and understanding, repair can simultaneously be used to negotiate linguistic membership. Repair can be used to establish, confirm, or insist on speakers’ belonging to one particular speech community over another. Moreover, participants can use repair to express affiliation and disaffiliation with each other. The implications of this research are discussed, linking the organization of conversation with issues of language and identity, specifically with the social meaning of dialect variety in the Francophone world. Thus, this article demonstrates how phenomena commonly discussed on the macro level are realized and negotiated on the micro level.
    Subjects: Varieties of French, Cross-linguistic analysis, Identity, Conversation analysis, Membership categorization
    Date Created: 2008
  8. The use of paragraphs in French and English academic writing: Towards a grammar of paragraphs [Download]

    Title: The use of paragraphs in French and English academic writing: Towards a grammar of paragraphs
    Creator: Le, E.
    Description: In this article, differences between French and English academics in the use of paragraphs in the domain of public international law are brought to light. First, the concept of paragraph ('macrostructuralbasis') in text linguistics is defined formally with relations of coordination, Subordination, and superordination. Second, a typology of paragraphs is established. Third, after the distribution of paragraphs in the corpora has been examined, it is shown how they combine and what their roles are. Thus the first Steps towards a grammar of paragraphs are defined. Furthermore, it appears that English authors tend to build their argumentation within their paragraphs, while French authors use paragraphs t o build their argumentation. The explanation for this difference might be cultural.
    Subjects: Academic writing, Contrastive rhetoric, Text linguistics, Paragraphs, Macrostructural basis
    Date Created: 1999
  9. The role of paragraphs in the construction of coherence text linguistics and translation studies [Download]

    Title: The role of paragraphs in the construction of coherence text linguistics and translation studies
    Creator: Le, E.
    Description: This article presents and illustrates a formal model of linguistic analysis in order to explain a phenomenon that is fundamental to translators in their practice: the construction of coherence. First, the role of paragraphs in the construction of coherence is explained with the application of the model to a newspaper editorial. It is shown, in particular, how a change in the paragraph division of this text affects its meaning. Second, the article underlines the theoretical usefulness and practical limitations of text linguistics for translation studies. In this sense, this article calls for a better understanding between specialists in both fields.
    Subjects: News Media, Connected discourse, Models, Editing, Paragraph composition, Linguistics, Rhetoric, Text Structure, Translation
    Date Created: 2004
  10. The relevance of specific language impairment in understanding the role of transfer in second language acquisition [Download]

    Title: The relevance of specific language impairment in understanding the role of transfer in second language acquisition
    Creator: Paradis, J.
    Description: The purpose of this study was to assess whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) are a useful first language (L1) comparison group for second language (L2) children in order to determine whether target-deviant structures in interlanguage are developmental or due to transfer from the L1. Children with SLI could make a useful comparison group for child L2 learners because, unlike very young L1 learners, children with SLI have both incomplete abilities in the target language and the same cognitive and mental maturity as their age mates acquiring an L2.We examined the use of direct object clitics by English-L1/French-L2 learners and monolingual French-speaking children with SLI. Transfer from English might be expected for object pronominalization in French L2 interlanguage because the two languages have contrastive systems for this aspect of grammar. The use of direct object clitics in contexts in spontaneous speech where object pronominalization would be permissible was examined. The results showed that both the L2 and SLI children supplied clitics in permissible contexts at the same rate (approximately 40%), which was lower than that of monolingual, normally developing French-speaking children who were either age-matched (7 years old) or language-matched according to mean length of utterance in words (3 years old) with the L2–SLI children. Although there appeared to be some role of L1 transfer in the relative distribution of nonclitic object types in clitic-permissible contexts, the similarities between the SLI and L2 children suggest that target-deviant structures involving direct object pronominalization are a developmental phenomenon in child French across learner contexts. The results also suggest that for acquisition of some target-deviant structures, there can be greater similarities between L2 and SLI children than between L2 and younger L1 children.
    Subjects: Aphasic children, Speech disorders in children, Communicative disorders in children, Language disorders in children, Children--language
    Date Created: 2004