ERA

Research Publications

Items in this Collection
  1. The use of paragraphs in French and English academic writing: Towards a grammar of paragraphs

    Title: The use of paragraphs in French and English academic writing: Towards a grammar of paragraphs
    Creator: Le, E.
    Description: In this article, differences between French and English academics in the use of paragraphs in the domain of public international law are brought to light. First, the concept of paragraph ('macrostructuralbasis') in text linguistics is defined formally with relations of coordination, Subordination, and superordination. Second, a typology of paragraphs is established. Third, after the distribution of paragraphs in the corpora has been examined, it is shown how they combine and what their roles are. Thus the first Steps towards a grammar of paragraphs are defined. Furthermore, it appears that English authors tend to build their argumentation within their paragraphs, while French authors use paragraphs t o build their argumentation. The explanation for this difference might be cultural.
    Subjects: Academic writing, Contrastive rhetoric, Text linguistics, Paragraphs, Macrostructural basis
    Date Created: 1999
  2. English posture verbs: An experientially grounded approach

    Title: English posture verbs: An experientially grounded approach
    Creator: Newman, J.
    Subjects: Experiential reality, Locative predicates, Grammaticalization, Verbal aspect, Posture verbs, Corpus linguistics
    Date Created: 2009
  3. The role of paragraphs in the construction of coherence text linguistics and translation studies

    Title: The role of paragraphs in the construction of coherence text linguistics and translation studies
    Creator: Le, E.
    Description: This article presents and illustrates a formal model of linguistic analysis in order to explain a phenomenon that is fundamental to translators in their practice: the construction of coherence. First, the role of paragraphs in the construction of coherence is explained with the application of the model to a newspaper editorial. It is shown, in particular, how a change in the paragraph division of this text affects its meaning. Second, the article underlines the theoretical usefulness and practical limitations of text linguistics for translation studies. In this sense, this article calls for a better understanding between specialists in both fields.
    Subjects: News Media, Connected discourse, Models, Editing, Paragraph composition, Linguistics, Rhetoric, Text Structure, Translation
    Date Created: 2004
  4. Bilingual children with specific language impairment: Theoretical and applied issues

    Title: Bilingual children with specific language impairment: Theoretical and applied issues
    Creator: Paradis, J.
    Description: Bilingualism is often considered an inappropriate developmental choice for children with specific language impairment (SLI) because, according to a widespread belief, these children’s limited capacity for language would be overtaxed by learning two linguistic systems. However, there has not been adequate empirical investigation of SLI in bilingual children to support, or refute, this belief and the professional practices that are based on it. On the theoretical side, two opposing perspectives concerning the nature of the deficit in SLI make different predictions for the outcome of children with SLI learning two languages, and one set of predictions is consistentwith the popular belief stated above. This article is aimed at addressing both the applied concerns and the theoretical debate with evidence from two studies examining the morphological acquisition of French–English bilingual children with SLI as compared to French and English monolinguals with SLI.
    Subjects: Bilingualism, Prediction, Comparative analysis, Language research, Language impairments, Beliefs, Child language, French, Second language learning, Language acquisition, Morphology, Monolingualism
    Date Created: 2007
  5. Contextual effects on the duration of ejective fricatives in Upper Necaxa Totonac

    Title: Contextual effects on the duration of ejective fricatives in Upper Necaxa Totonac
    Creator: Rebekka Puderbaugh
    Description: The present paper investigates the effects of word position, stress and vowel phonation on the duration of ejective fricatives in Upper Necaxa Totonac (UNT), a Totonacan language of northern Puebla, Mexico. Duration measurements were taken of frication and periods of silence occurring between frication and following vowels. Fricatives occurring in word initial position were found to be overall longer than those occurring intervocalically. Fricatives occurring at the onset of stressed syllables were generally longer than unstressed. Lateral ejective fricatives had longer frication durations in intervocalic position preceding a creaky vowel than when preceding a modal vowel. Closures that occurred between frication and vowel onset were found to be longer when the fricative occurred word initially and in stressed syllables.
    Subjects: phonetics, ejective, Totonac, fricative, acoustics
    Date Created: 2015/05/01
  6. What it means to be phonetic or phonological: The case of Romanian devoiced nasals

    Title: What it means to be phonetic or phonological: The case of Romanian devoiced nasals
    Creator: Tucker, Benjamin V.
    Description: Abstract phonological patterns and detailed phonetic patterns can combine to produce unusual acoustic results, but criteria for what aspects of a pattern are phonetic and what aspects are phonological are often disputed. Early literature on Romanian makes mention of nasal devoicing in word-final clusters (e.g. in /basm/ ‘ fairy-tale’). Using acoustic, aerodynamic and ultrasound data, the current work investigates how syllable structure, prosodic boundaries, phonetic paradigm uniformity and assimilation influence Romanian nasal devoicing. It provides instrumental phonetic documentation of devoiced nasals, a phenomenon that has not been widely studied experimentally, in a phonetically underdocumented language.We argue that sound patterns should not be separated into phonetics and phonology as two distinct systems, but neither should they all be grouped together as a single, undifferentiated system. Instead, we argue for viewing the distinction between phonetics and phonology as a largely continuous multidimensional space, within which sound patterns, including Romanian nasal devoicing, fall.
    Subjects: Romanian language, Prosodic boundary, Syllabification, Nasal consonants, Devoicing, Assimilation (phonology)
    Date Created: 2010
  7. Crosslinguistic transfer in the acquisition of compound words in Persian-English bilinguals

    Title: Crosslinguistic transfer in the acquisition of compound words in Persian-English bilinguals
    Creator: Foroodi-Nejad, F.
    Description: Crosslinguistic transfer in bilingual language acquisition has been widely reported in various linguistic domains (e.g., D¨opke, 1998; Nicoladis, 1999; Paradis, 2001). In this study we examined structural overlap (D¨opke, 2000; M¨uller and Hulk, 2001) and dominance (Yip and Matthews, 2000) as explanatory factors for crosslinguistic transfer in Persian–English bilingual children’s production of novel compound words. Nineteen Persian monolinguals, sixteen Persian–English bilinguals, and seventeen English monolinguals participated in a novel compound production task. Our results showed crosslinguistic influence of Persian on English and of English on Persian. Bilingual children produced more right-headed compounds in Persian, compared with Persian monolinguals, and in their English task, they produced more left-headed compounds than English monolinguals. Furthermore, Persian-dominant bilinguals tended more towards left-headed compounds in Persian than the English-dominant group. These findings point to both structural overlap and language dominance as factors underlying crosslinguistic transfer.
    Subjects: English, Bilingualism, Transfer of training, Language acquisition, Language dominance, Indo-European languages
    Date Created: 2009
  8. The Wenzhou Spoken Corpus

    Title: The Wenzhou Spoken Corpus
    Creator: Newman, John
    Description: The creation of the Wenzhou Spoken Corpus, an online searchable corpus of a modern Chinese dialect, presents a number of challenges that are of interest to the corpus linguistic community. We review issues involved with collection of spoken data, its transcription and markup, as well as the functionality of the search tools. The transcription makes use of Chinese characters as well as IPA symbols for Wenzhou colloquial forms not conventionally represented by characters. XML was adopted as the standard for the basic format of files, with file searches expressed in XPath form. The search tools provide the usual options of restricting searches by age, gender, etc., and yield concordances and tables of collocates. Though the collection of data for the corpus was ‘opportunistic’ in some ways, and so not ideally balanced or representative, it is nevertheless proving to be a valuable tool for corpus-based research on Wenzhou.
    Subjects: Wu language, Dialectology, Corpora (linguistics)
    Date Created: 2007
  9. Intelligibility of foreign-accented words: Acoustic distances and gradient foreign accentedness

    Title: Intelligibility of foreign-accented words: Acoustic distances and gradient foreign accentedness
    Creator: Porretta, Vincent
    Description: Intelligibility and degree of accentedness are interrelated aspects of non-native speech. Previous research suggests that foreign accentedness is influenced by phonetic distance measures [7]. These distance measures may also influence the intelligibility of individual words. In the present study we further investigate the relationship between the intelligibility of native- and Mandarin-accented English words and acoustic distance measures (both spectral and temporal). We also examine the functional relationship between intelligibility and ratings of foreign accentedness assigned to the same words. Intelligibility was based on transcription accuracy scores and acoustic distances were based on formant and duration measurements in relation to mean values from a set of native talkers. The results indicate that temporal and spectral distances influence word intelligibility and that the functional relationship between intelligibility and accentedness is non-linear.
    Subjects: foreign-accented speech, gradient accentedness, intelligibility, acoustic distance
    Date Created: 2015/04/29
  10. Three-place predicates: A cognitive-linguistic perspective

    Title: Three-place predicates: A cognitive-linguistic perspective
    Creator: Newman, J.
    Subjects: Three-place predicates, Cognitive linguistics
    Date Created: 2005