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  1. Evaluating wildlife passage use and discovery for small and medium sized mammals in an Eastern Canadian boreal forest [Download]

    Title: Evaluating wildlife passage use and discovery for small and medium sized mammals in an Eastern Canadian boreal forest
    Creator: Martinig, April Robin
    Description: Paper presented at the 100th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America in 2015. BACKGROUND/QUESTION/METHODS: While many studies have looked at how large mammals respond to road mitigation measures, few studies have examined the effects on smaller mammals or taken a multispecies approach. We investigated the effectiveness of three different types of wildlife passages along Highway 175 in northern Quebec for small and medium sized mammals using infrared cameras. Wildlife passages (n=17) were monitored year round from 2012 to 2015 (planned). Two research questions were addressed: (1) Do environmental and structural characteristics explain differences in crossing success and passageway discovery across passage types?; and (2) Does the frequency of passageway usage and discovery differ by species? Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, a global model and species-specific models for the most abundant species were generated to answer these questions. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Pipe culverts, one of three passage types, were significantly less likely to be crossed in general, and particularly by weasels. Passage success was less likely with a median present overall, except for weasels. Species’ responded to the passages differently, while crossing success decreased as latitude increased and openness decreased. For micro-mammals, increasing latitude and the presence of artificial light decreased crossings. Taken together, these results have local and global management implications. By highlighting how agencies can engineer more effective wildlife passages, in particular by minimizing the barrier effect of the structures themselves, this study hopes to encourage further construction of wildlife passages on a larger scale.
    Subjects: wildlife passages, mitigation, mammals, Canada, Quebec, Habitat connectivity
    Date Created: August 14, 2015
  2. Taking a Multispecies Approach to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Passages for Small and Medium Sized Mammals in an Eastern Canadian Boreal Forest [Download]

    Title: Taking a Multispecies Approach to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Passages for Small and Medium Sized Mammals in an Eastern Canadian Boreal Forest
    Creator: Martinig, April Robin
    Description: Poster presented at the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation in 2015. Research is an investigation into the effectiveness of three different types of wildlife passages along Highway 175 in northern Quebec for small and medium sized mammals using infrared cameras. Two research questions were addressed: (1) Do environmental and structural characteristics explain differences in crossing success across passage types?; and (2) Does the frequency of passageway usage differ by species?
    Subjects: mitigation, wildlife management, mammals, wildlife passages, Quebec, Canada
    Date Created: September 21, 2015
  3. Conservation Planning in Northwest Alberta [Download]

    Title: Conservation Planning in Northwest Alberta
    Creator: Richard Schneider
    Description: This report provides the results of a study on conservation planning and the optimal location of new conservation areas in Alberta’s Upper Peace, Lower Peace, and the Upper Athabasca planning regions. The Alberta Land-use Framework (LUF) was developed as a regional planning framework to manage growth and balance the economic, environmental, and social goals of Albertans. One of the main mechanisms for achieving environmental goals under the LUF is the establishment of new conservation areas, following the precedent established with the Lower Athabasca Regional Plan. These conservation areas also contribute towards the Government of Alberta’s commitment to protect 17% of ecosystems under the Convention on Biological Diversity, which was reconfirmed in the Alberta Environment and Parks 2016 business plan. The Northern Alberta Conservation Area Working Group was established in March 2015 to undertake a study of conservation options to support the Upper Peace, Lower Peace, and Upper Athabasca planning processes. It is anticipated that the province will begin planning in these regions in the near future. The experience gained with the first two regional plans indicates that short timelines limit the amount of research and analysis that can be done once the actual planning process begins. The planning teams must generally work with the information that is available to them at the time. Our objective was to provide scientifically-grounded information on conservation planning, including the optimal location of new conservation areas, leaving the decision of how much of land to protect (i.e., the balance between economic and environmental goals) to the regional planning process. Our approach to identifying conservation priorities was grounded in the principles of systematic conservation planning. We also sought alignment with the Convention on Biological Diversity, the LUF’s planning criteria for conservation areas, and the planning approach used by Alberta Parks. Our working objective was to design a reserve system that provided the greatest overall conservation benefit given limits on the amount of protection available. Not knowing how much land would ultimately be available for protection, we produced reserve designs across a range of sizes. The reserves were generated using the Marxan conservation planning software, which identified optimal designs for representing a wide range of conservation features across multiple scales. Our analysis also incorporated disturbance intensity, climate change, and resource conflict. The report describes the inputs and methods used to generate the reserve designs, and it provides a series of maps that illustrate the steps in our analysis, leading to the identification of a set of regional priority sites. The report and supporting data have been provided to the Government of Alberta for use in upcoming regional planning initiatives and are also available to the public.
    Subjects: Protected Areas, Land-use Framework, Conservation Planning, Marxan
    Date Created: June 2016
  4. Comparative Genomics of <i>Vibrio metoecus</i> with Its Close Relative <i>Vibrio cholerae</i> Reveals Its Pathogenic Potential [Download]

    Title: Comparative Genomics of <i>Vibrio metoecus</i> with Its Close Relative <i>Vibrio cholerae</i> Reveals Its Pathogenic Potential
    Creator: Orata, Fabini D.
    Description: Presented at the "Genomics: The Power and the Promise" conference in Ottawa, Ontario on November 24-26, 2014.

    Abstract published on: Genome (2014), 57(7):377-378

    Vibrio metoecus is a recently discovered species that is closely related to Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the potent disease cholera. It has been co-isolated with V. cholerae in coastal waters and found in clinical specimens in the United States. Our aim is to understand the pathogenic potential of V. metoecus and the extent of genetic interaction with V. cholerae. By comparison of 48 genomes of V. metoecus (10 genomes) and V. cholerae (38 genomes) using various bioinformatics tools, both species display 85-86% average nucleotide identity (ANI), which indicate very distinct species (>95% ANI for the same species). V. metoecus strains do not encode the major virulence factors of pandemic V. cholerae strains, the CTX and TCP gene clusters. However, it encodes other virulence factors and genomic islands, such as multiple hemolysin and neuraminidase genes, and regions of the Vibrio seventh pandemic islands (VSP) I and II and Vibrio pathogenicity island II. Both VSP islands are also present in pathogenic V. cholerae strains of the seventh pandemic. Interestingly, the superintegron, a region of the genome that is able to acquire genes and is the main cause of multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria, shows higher conservation in gene content between V. metoecus and V. cholerae, isolated from the same environment, than any other region of their genomes, despite having the least conservation in gene order. Additionally, there is evidence of recombination inside the superintegron region and between housekeeping genes. Results suggest recent horizontal gene transfer of these mobile genetic elements between species, raising the concern that more virulence genes could cross the species barrier from V. cholerae to V. metoecus, facilitating the rise of this novel emerging pathogen, which is in constant interaction with V. cholerae.
    Subjects: Horizontal gene transfer, <i>Vibrio metoecus</i>, Genomic islands, <i>Vibrio cholerae</i>, Integron, Comparative genomics
    Date Created: 2014/11/23
  5. “¿Por qué tenemos que aprender estas cosas?” Una Nueva Genética para alumnos del siglo XXI [Download]

    Title: “¿Por qué tenemos que aprender estas cosas?” Una Nueva Genética para alumnos del siglo XXI
    Creator: Redfield, Rosemary J.
    Description: Traducción del artículo: Redfield RJ (2012) “Why Do We Have to Learn This Stuff?”—A New Genetics for 21st Century Students. PLoS Biol 10(7): e1001356. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001356 Copyright: © 2012 Rosemary J. Redfield. Este es un artículo de acceso libre distribuido bajo los términos de Creative Commons Attribution Licence, el cual permite el uso, la distribución y reproducción sin restricciones en cualquier medio, siempre que el autor y la fuente original sean citados. Financiamiento: No se recibió financiamiento específico para este trabajo. Conflictos de interés: El autor ha declarado que no existen conflictos de interés.
    Subjects: Molecular, Curriculum, Educación
    Date Created: 2014/02/15
  6. Conserving Alberta’s Biodiversity Under a Changing Climate: A Review and Analysis of Adaptation Measures [Download]

    Title: Conserving Alberta’s Biodiversity Under a Changing Climate: A Review and Analysis of Adaptation Measures
    Creator: Schneider, Richard R.
    Description: As a province and a nation we have committed to conserving our native biodiversity. In this discussion paper I examine this goal through the lens of climate change. The intent is to draw attention to issues that need to be addressed and to illustrate options for adapting our current system of biodiversity management to the new realities we face. The report is divided into three main sections: a review of the risks that climate change poses for biodiversity; an examination of how conservation objectives can be defined in a world of constant change; and a review and analysis of adaptation measures, ranging from management actions through to planning and supportive measures.
    Subjects: Climate change, Protected areas, Biodiversity, Planning, Adaptation
  7. THE RISK OF GETTING ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUGS AS OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS [Download]

    Title: THE RISK OF GETTING ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUGS AS OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS
    Creator: EL‐Ghazouly, Karim M.
    Description: often ineffective in controlling tuberculosis among patients who use illicit drugs1. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing in many parts of the world. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tuberculosis) to Anti-tuberculosis drugs is man-made. In Egypt, private pharmacies constitute an important part of the private healthcare sector where some Anti-tuberculosis drugs dispensed without prescriptions. With such malpractice emergence of serious types of M. tuberculosis- resistant strains is highly likely to occur. Methods: Surveys of a random sample of 78 pharmacies in Alexandria and Behira for Anti-tuberculosis drugs were included in our study. These pharmacies were divided into hospital pharmacies, pharmacies in rural areas and pharmacies in urban areas. Questionnaires were given to these pharmacies, and interviews were carried out based on a structured questionnaire. Results: It was found that 90.8% of the pharmacies enrolled in this study hold in their inventoryAnti-tuberculosis drugs; however, 77% of them dispense these drugs without prescription, while 15.4% advice the patient about their risks. Nevertheless, 20% only ask the patient why they take these drugs Conclusion: Awareness to patient taking Anti-tuberculosis drugs about their risk is of paramount importance, meanwhile; awareness to pharmacists dispensing these drugs about their risk. Imposing a penalty on pharmacists dispensing Anti-tuberculosis drugs without prescription. Limiting the dispensing of these drugs to hospitals curing tuberculosis . encouraging pharmacists to counsel the patient asking for these drugs, are all viable options.
    Subjects: OTC Drugs, Tuberculosi, Rifambicin
    Date Created: 2011
  8. Microbial succession in glacial foreland soils [Download]

    Title: Microbial succession in glacial foreland soils
    Creator: Kazemi, Sina
    Description: Although viable microbial communities have been shown to exist beneath glaciers, the impact of glacial retreat on these communities and development of the resulting foreland ecosystem is not well understood. This study investigated how microbial communities respond to changing conditions brought on by glacial retreat and whether a pattern of succession, such as those found in well characterized plant systems, occurs along a soil foreland in these microbial communities. Effects of glacial retreat on the composition of microbial communities along a glacial foreland chronosequence were examined in two glaciers, Duke Glacier and Trapridge Glacier, located in the St. Elias Mountain Range, SW Yukon. Sampling of soil along either side of the glacial forelands was conducted in May and July 2011. Five subsamples were collected at each site to account for any within-site variation of communities. Due to time constraints, only one subsample at each site along the Duke left chronosequence (C1-C7) sampled in July 2011 was examined. DNA extraction results indicate an increasing trend in DNA yield of microbial communities with distance from the glacier terminus. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that communities nearest the glacier terminus (C1) were distinct from all other sites. Microbial communities at sites C2-C7 (excluding C3) clustered together. These results suggest there is a rapid stabilization of microbial communities at C2, and a steady increase in biomass occurs thereafter.
    Subjects: soil, succession, microbe, foreland, glacier
    Date Created: 2011/11/01
  9. A Modeling Framework for Assessing the Potential Impacts of Climate Change in Northeastern Alberta [Download]

    Title: A Modeling Framework for Assessing the Potential Impacts of Climate Change in Northeastern Alberta
    Creator: Schneider, Richard R.
    Description: This paper provides a framework for modeling the effects of climate change on key indicators of interest to regional land-use planning teams. The framework is based on input from a technical workshop held on October 16, 2008, as well as follow-up with technical experts and a review of the scientific literature. Our intent is to provide planning teams with a workable modeling approach and guidance with respect to the selection of parameter values. Our approach places a priority on assumptions and parameters grounded in the scientific literature. Specific recommendations are highlighted in bold text.
    Subjects: ALCES, Land-use planning, Climate change
    Date Created: 2008/12/19
  10. Evaluation of Beauvericinas a Marker for Beauveria bassiana virulence and its implication for greenhouse pest management [Download]

    Title: Evaluation of Beauvericinas a Marker for Beauveria bassiana virulence and its implication for greenhouse pest management
    Creator: Rajput, Sunil
    Subjects: Beauveria bassiana, Biocontrol, Invertebrate pathology, thrips, Greenhouse, Mycotoxins
    Date Created: 2006