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  1. Evaluating wildlife passage use and discovery for small and medium sized mammals in an Eastern Canadian boreal forest [Download]

    Title: Evaluating wildlife passage use and discovery for small and medium sized mammals in an Eastern Canadian boreal forest
    Creator: Martinig, April Robin
    Description: Paper presented at the 100th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America in 2015. BACKGROUND/QUESTION/METHODS: While many studies have looked at how large mammals respond to road mitigation measures, few studies have examined the effects on smaller mammals or taken a multispecies approach. We investigated the effectiveness of three different types of wildlife passages along Highway 175 in northern Quebec for small and medium sized mammals using infrared cameras. Wildlife passages (n=17) were monitored year round from 2012 to 2015 (planned). Two research questions were addressed: (1) Do environmental and structural characteristics explain differences in crossing success and passageway discovery across passage types?; and (2) Does the frequency of passageway usage and discovery differ by species? Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, a global model and species-specific models for the most abundant species were generated to answer these questions. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Pipe culverts, one of three passage types, were significantly less likely to be crossed in general, and particularly by weasels. Passage success was less likely with a median present overall, except for weasels. Species’ responded to the passages differently, while crossing success decreased as latitude increased and openness decreased. For micro-mammals, increasing latitude and the presence of artificial light decreased crossings. Taken together, these results have local and global management implications. By highlighting how agencies can engineer more effective wildlife passages, in particular by minimizing the barrier effect of the structures themselves, this study hopes to encourage further construction of wildlife passages on a larger scale.
    Subjects: wildlife passages, mitigation, mammals, Canada, Quebec, Habitat connectivity
    Date Created: August 14, 2015
  2. Taking a Multispecies Approach to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Passages for Small and Medium Sized Mammals in an Eastern Canadian Boreal Forest [Download]

    Title: Taking a Multispecies Approach to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Passages for Small and Medium Sized Mammals in an Eastern Canadian Boreal Forest
    Creator: Martinig, April Robin
    Description: Poster presented at the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation in 2015. Research is an investigation into the effectiveness of three different types of wildlife passages along Highway 175 in northern Quebec for small and medium sized mammals using infrared cameras. Two research questions were addressed: (1) Do environmental and structural characteristics explain differences in crossing success across passage types?; and (2) Does the frequency of passageway usage differ by species?
    Subjects: mitigation, wildlife management, mammals, wildlife passages, Quebec, Canada
    Date Created: September 21, 2015
  3. Conservation Planning in Northwest Alberta [Download]

    Title: Conservation Planning in Northwest Alberta
    Creator: Richard Schneider
    Description: This report provides the results of a study on conservation planning and the optimal location of new conservation areas in Alberta’s Upper Peace, Lower Peace, and the Upper Athabasca planning regions. The Alberta Land-use Framework (LUF) was developed as a regional planning framework to manage growth and balance the economic, environmental, and social goals of Albertans. One of the main mechanisms for achieving environmental goals under the LUF is the establishment of new conservation areas, following the precedent established with the Lower Athabasca Regional Plan. These conservation areas also contribute towards the Government of Alberta’s commitment to protect 17% of ecosystems under the Convention on Biological Diversity, which was reconfirmed in the Alberta Environment and Parks 2016 business plan. The Northern Alberta Conservation Area Working Group was established in March 2015 to undertake a study of conservation options to support the Upper Peace, Lower Peace, and Upper Athabasca planning processes. It is anticipated that the province will begin planning in these regions in the near future. The experience gained with the first two regional plans indicates that short timelines limit the amount of research and analysis that can be done once the actual planning process begins. The planning teams must generally work with the information that is available to them at the time. Our objective was to provide scientifically-grounded information on conservation planning, including the optimal location of new conservation areas, leaving the decision of how much of land to protect (i.e., the balance between economic and environmental goals) to the regional planning process. Our approach to identifying conservation priorities was grounded in the principles of systematic conservation planning. We also sought alignment with the Convention on Biological Diversity, the LUF’s planning criteria for conservation areas, and the planning approach used by Alberta Parks. Our working objective was to design a reserve system that provided the greatest overall conservation benefit given limits on the amount of protection available. Not knowing how much land would ultimately be available for protection, we produced reserve designs across a range of sizes. The reserves were generated using the Marxan conservation planning software, which identified optimal designs for representing a wide range of conservation features across multiple scales. Our analysis also incorporated disturbance intensity, climate change, and resource conflict. The report describes the inputs and methods used to generate the reserve designs, and it provides a series of maps that illustrate the steps in our analysis, leading to the identification of a set of regional priority sites. The report and supporting data have been provided to the Government of Alberta for use in upcoming regional planning initiatives and are also available to the public.
    Subjects: Protected Areas, Land-use Framework, Conservation Planning, Marxan
    Date Created: June 2016
  4. Comparative Genomics of <i>Vibrio metoecus</i> with Its Close Relative <i>Vibrio cholerae</i> Reveals Its Pathogenic Potential [Download]

    Title: Comparative Genomics of <i>Vibrio metoecus</i> with Its Close Relative <i>Vibrio cholerae</i> Reveals Its Pathogenic Potential
    Creator: Orata, Fabini D.
    Description: Presented at the "Genomics: The Power and the Promise" conference in Ottawa, Ontario on November 24-26, 2014.

    Abstract published on: Genome (2014), 57(7):377-378

    Vibrio metoecus is a recently discovered species that is closely related to Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the potent disease cholera. It has been co-isolated with V. cholerae in coastal waters and found in clinical specimens in the United States. Our aim is to understand the pathogenic potential of V. metoecus and the extent of genetic interaction with V. cholerae. By comparison of 48 genomes of V. metoecus (10 genomes) and V. cholerae (38 genomes) using various bioinformatics tools, both species display 85-86% average nucleotide identity (ANI), which indicate very distinct species (>95% ANI for the same species). V. metoecus strains do not encode the major virulence factors of pandemic V. cholerae strains, the CTX and TCP gene clusters. However, it encodes other virulence factors and genomic islands, such as multiple hemolysin and neuraminidase genes, and regions of the Vibrio seventh pandemic islands (VSP) I and II and Vibrio pathogenicity island II. Both VSP islands are also present in pathogenic V. cholerae strains of the seventh pandemic. Interestingly, the superintegron, a region of the genome that is able to acquire genes and is the main cause of multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria, shows higher conservation in gene content between V. metoecus and V. cholerae, isolated from the same environment, than any other region of their genomes, despite having the least conservation in gene order. Additionally, there is evidence of recombination inside the superintegron region and between housekeeping genes. Results suggest recent horizontal gene transfer of these mobile genetic elements between species, raising the concern that more virulence genes could cross the species barrier from V. cholerae to V. metoecus, facilitating the rise of this novel emerging pathogen, which is in constant interaction with V. cholerae.
    Subjects: Horizontal gene transfer, <i>Vibrio metoecus</i>, Genomic islands, <i>Vibrio cholerae</i>, Integron, Comparative genomics
    Date Created: 2014/11/23
  5. “¿Por qué tenemos que aprender estas cosas?” Una Nueva Genética para alumnos del siglo XXI [Download]

    Title: “¿Por qué tenemos que aprender estas cosas?” Una Nueva Genética para alumnos del siglo XXI
    Creator: Redfield, Rosemary J.
    Description: Traducción del artículo: Redfield RJ (2012) “Why Do We Have to Learn This Stuff?”—A New Genetics for 21st Century Students. PLoS Biol 10(7): e1001356. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001356 Copyright: © 2012 Rosemary J. Redfield. Este es un artículo de acceso libre distribuido bajo los términos de Creative Commons Attribution Licence, el cual permite el uso, la distribución y reproducción sin restricciones en cualquier medio, siempre que el autor y la fuente original sean citados. Financiamiento: No se recibió financiamiento específico para este trabajo. Conflictos de interés: El autor ha declarado que no existen conflictos de interés.
    Subjects: Molecular, Curriculum, Educación
    Date Created: 2014/02/15
  6. Evaluation of Beauvericinas a Marker for Beauveria bassiana virulence and its implication for greenhouse pest management [Download]

    Title: Evaluation of Beauvericinas a Marker for Beauveria bassiana virulence and its implication for greenhouse pest management
    Creator: Rajput, Sunil
    Subjects: Beauveria bassiana, Biocontrol, Invertebrate pathology, thrips, Greenhouse, Mycotoxins
    Date Created: 2006
  7. An Integrated Planning Approach for Selecting Conservation Offsets in Northern Alberta [Download]

    Title: An Integrated Planning Approach for Selecting Conservation Offsets in Northern Alberta
    Creator: Schneider, Richard R.
    Description: In this report I consider the question of how to select sites that will serve as conservation offsets, drawing on recent research into optimized resource allocation. My recommendations are most applicable to an offset program based on the conservation banking approach applied at regional scale (e.g., Alberta’s boreal region). I take the perspective that the funds placed into the conservation bank represent an investment in conservation and that the objective is to achieve the greatest possible return on this investment.
    Subjects: Conservation offsets, Optimal resource allocation, Protected areas
    Date Created: 2011/10/11
  8. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of Beauveria bassiana pathogenicity for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis [MSc Dissertation] [Download]

    Title: In vivo and in vitro evaluation of Beauveria bassiana pathogenicity for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis [MSc Dissertation]
    Creator: Rajput, Sunil
    Description: Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, are major pests in greenhouses. The fungus Beauveria bassiana is a safer alternative to use of chemical insecticides against this insect; and evaluating isolates for high virulence has usually involved in vivo studies. My approach examines in vitro properties of B. bassiana in relation to F. occidentalis in vivo virulence. I developed in vitro tools based on colony growth and metabolite analyses to identify isolates for biocontrol potential. Six characteristics were developed and assessed against LT50 data. My results indicated that 3 combined characteristics (harvest quality, mycelial fragments and degree of submerged mycelia) can be used to predict virulence. Oosporein production was also examined by photo-exposure. Results indicated that all 4 isolates tested, exhibiting low to high virulence, produced oosporein thereby disassociating it from whole animal virulence. Instead, oosporein may function as a photo-protectant. Beauvericin production was also evaluated by HPLC and was produced by all 5 isolates tested. Beauvericin production and whole animal virulence appear to be uncoupled although my results do suggest a weak correlation. The toxicity of beauvericin was evaluated on a whitefly embryonic cell line and was found to be sensitive in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. I demonstrated the CC50 after 48 h incubation to be comparable to that of other researchers using different cell lines. These analyses will help reduce processing time and labour intensity required for in vivo studies when screening isolates. This approach contributes to a greater understanding of pathology and supports microbial control registration for commercial use.
    Subjects: Beauveria bassiana, Biological control, Thrips, Greenhouse, Invertebrate pathology
    Date Created: 2007
  9. Relationships among diverse root foraging behaviours: understanding plant behavioural types - supporting data [Download]

    Title: Relationships among diverse root foraging behaviours: understanding plant behavioural types - supporting data
    Creator: Belter, Pamela R.
    Description: These are the supporting data for the University of Alberta MSc thesis: Belter, Pamela R. 2014. Relationships among diverse root foraging behaviours: understanding plant behavioural types.
    Subjects: Mycorrhizae, Behavioural Syndromes, Belter, Root foraging, Nutrient, Thesis data, Competition, Foraging precision, Belowground, Plant Behaviour, Behavioural types, Root placement
    Date Created: 2014
  10. Alberta's Natural Subregions Under a Changing Climate: Past, Present, and Future [Download]

    Title: Alberta's Natural Subregions Under a Changing Climate: Past, Present, and Future
    Creator: Schneider, Richard R.
    Description: The Natural Regions and Subregions classification represents the state-of-the-art in ecological land classification in Alberta. It is becoming increasingly apparent, however, that current landscape patterns are destined to change in coming decades as a consequence of global warming. In this report I place the Natural Regions and Subregions into a dynamic frame-work, describing how they have responded to climate change in the past and how they are expected to change over the next hundred years.
    Subjects: Ecosystems, Natural Subregion, Climate change
    Date Created: 2013/08/27